(by: Jerry M. Kosanovich)




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 Europa trauert
 (Europe mourns)
  Publ. Essig Basel (CH)

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 The Battle
    Publ. Pax Antwerp (B)

Europe is a continent whose history is one of century after   century of warfare on scale small and large. Warfare of great historical significance and of significance only to the passing agony of the locals who suffered in conflicts forgotten or little remembered.

Europeans sent their young men and spent their blood and treasure on warfare and strife across the globe in little known distant settings and among non-Christians in fabled lands little understood.  All in the name of "Empire".          

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Spectre of war
Publ. Minerva Prague

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The people and the State.
Publ. Estonia

Europe became the center of the world as her empires grew and clashed across the globe.
Empires whose reach was extended beyond any previous recognition or comprehension by the industrial revolution of the 1800's and whose diplomacy was securely in the hands of a small elite who danced the dance diplomatique to rules and standards incomprehensible by the common man.              

The common man who filled the ranks of the armies and the navies, and who was the perennial "canon fodder" for the ambitions of the empire. None of this history of seemingly continuous conflict and the application of raw power was even a slight preamble to understanding what Europeans were to ultimately face and experience in what became known universally and simply as ........... 

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War against War
Publ. Rigi Lucerne (CH)

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The European War
Publ. Essig Basel (CH)

         The Great War

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